# Jinyoung Park (Stanford University)

September 15, 2022 at MIT

Title: Thresholds

Abstract: For a finite set X, a family F of subsets of X is said to be increasing if any set A that contains B in F is also in F. The p-biased product measure of F increases as p increases from 0 to 1, and often exhibits a drastic change around a specific value, which is called a “threshold.” Thresholds of increasing families have been of great historical interest and a central focus of the study of random discrete structures (e.g. random graphs and hypergraphs), with estimation of thresholds for specific properties the subject of some of the most challenging work in the area. In 2006, Jeff Kahn and Gil Kalai conjectured that a natural (and often easy to calculate) lower bound q(F) (which we refer to as the “expectation-threshold”) for the threshold is in fact never far from its actual value. A positive answer to this conjecture enables one to narrow down the location of thresholds for any increasing properties in a tiny window. In particular, this easily implies several previously very difficult results in probabilistic combinatorics such as thresholds for perfect hypergraph matchings (Johansson–Kahn–Vu) and bounded-degree spanning trees (Montgomery). In this talk, I will present recent progress on this topic. Based on joint work with Keith Frankston, Jeff Kahn, Bhargav Narayanan, and Huy Tuan Pham.

# Eva Miranda (Polytechnic University of Catalonia)

September 22, 2022 at Northeastern

Title: From dynamical chaos to logical chaos and vice-versa: Explored and unexplored paths

Abstract: Chaos was coined by Edward Lorenz in 1961 with the simple statement “Chaos: When the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future”. A different sort of chaos was discovered by Cris Moore in 1990 with a 2D Turing-type dynamical system via generalized shifts. The existence of a Turing machine associated with the dynamical system added a new intrigue to the plot: the undecidability of the halting problem (Alan Turing, 1936) yielded the impossibility of logical predictions in the new models. Those 2D systems given by mappings on the square Cantor set, however, are not realized by a physical system. In this talk, I will give 3D physical (and/or “almost” physical) constructions of logical chaos using fluids. Against all expectations, the main ingredient of this construction is geometrical. It relies on a mirror unveiled in 2000 by Etnyre and Ghrist between Beltrami fields and Reeb vector fields native to contact geometry. Many questions around such construction are pending including the connection among different levels of complexity (dynamical and logical) and the (in)existence of a hierarchy among them. I will end up my talk with some new challenges and open questions.

# Richard Kenyon (Yale University)

October 20, 2022 at Northeastern

Title: 3-webs and the boundary measurement matrix

Abstract: 3-webs are bipartite, trivalent, planar graphs. They appear naturally in the representation theory of SL_3: Greg Kuperberg showed that “reduced” 3-webs form a basis for invariant functions in tensor products of SL_3-representations. Webs and reduced webs also occur naturally in the triple-dimer model. We show how various topological types of reduced webs in the triple-dimer model on a (potentially large) planar graph can be computed using Postnikov’s boundary measurement matrix. This is joint work with Haolin Shi.

# Junehyuk Jung (Brown University)

October 27, 2022 at Brandeis

Title: Ergodicity and the number of nodal domains of eigenfunctions of the Laplacian

Abstract: Quantum Chaos concerns the relationship between a classical Hamiltonian system, whose Hamiltonian flow is chaotic, and the corresponding quantized system. When the Hamiltonian flow is the geodesic flow on a compact manifold, the corresponding quantized system is understood in terms of the eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operators. In this talk, I will discuss how the ergodicity of the geodesic flow can affect the geometry of the nodal set (the zero set) of the eigenfunctions. The main focus of the talk is the growth of the number of the nodal domains of the eigenfunctions, as the corresponding eigenvalues tend to infinity. This presentation is based on joint work with Seung Uk Jang, and Steve Zelditch.

# Will Sawin (Columbia University)

November 3, 2022 at MIT

Title: How do special polynomials typically factor?

# Mu-Tao Wang (Columbia University)

November 10, 2022 at Brandeis (4:30pm in SSC LL16)

Zoom link: https://brandeis.zoom.

Title: Angular momentum in general relativity

Abstract: Two black holes rotate about each other and eventually merge into a single black hole. How does one measure the angular momentum carried away by gravitational radiation during this merger? This has been a subtle issue since the 1960’s due to the existence of “supertranslation ambiguity”: the angular momentums recorded by two observers of the same system may not be the same.

In this talk, I shall describe how the mathematical theory of quasilocal mass and optimal isometric embedding identifies a new definition of angular momentum that is free of any supertranslation ambiguity. In addition, some recent development of the cross-section continuity of the angular momentum definition will also be discussed. This is based on joint work with Po-Ning Chen, Jordan Keller, Daniel Paraizo, Robert Wald, Ye-Kai Wang, and Shing-Tung Yau.

The talk will be preceded by refreshments, at 4:00 pm in Goldsmith 100.

# Tamar Ziegler (Hebrew University)

November 17th, 2022 at MIT (4:30 pm in 2 -190)

Abstract: The Mobius function is one of the most important arithmetic functions. There is a vague yet well known principle regarding its randomness properties called the “Mobius randomness law”. It basically states that the Mobius function should be orthogonal to any “structured” sequence. P. Sarnak suggested a far reaching conjecture as a possible formalization of this principle. He conjectured that “structured sequences” should correspond to sequences arising from deterministic dynamical systems. Sarnak’s conjecture follows from Chowla’s conjecture – which is the mobius version of the prime tuple conjecture. I will describe progress in recent years towards these conjectures, building on major advances in dynamics, additive combinatorics, and analytic number theory.

The talk will be preceded by a reception, at 4:00 pm in 2-290.

# Andrew Neitzke (Yale University)

December 1st, 2022 at Brandeis (4:30 pm in Volen 119)

Title: Mirror symmetry and the WKB method

Abstract: Mirror symmetry was originally discovered as a mysterious “duality” relation between Calabi-Yau manifolds X and Y. Strominger-Yau-Zaslow proposed how we should understand it in terms of classical differential geometry. Their picture has motivated an enormous body of literature, but in general it is still far from established. I will describe a special case where X and Y are certain moduli spaces, parameterizing ordinary differential equations defined on a Riemann surface. In this case the SYZ picture has been made much sharper, thanks to surprising connections to quantum field theory, enumerative geometry, and the theory of ordinary differential equations (the “exact WKB method”).

Refreshment served in Goldsmith 100 at 4:00 pm.

# Tomer Schlank (Hebrew University)

February 9, 2023 at MIT (4:30 pm in 2-190)

**Title: **Chromatic Homotopy Theory and Higher Algebra.

**Abstract: **In the world of homotopy theory, there are analogs of abelian groups called Spectra. Spectra are extremely useful in algebraic topology, differential topology, algebraic K-theory, and more. According to the primary decomposition theorem, Abelian groups decompose into parts according to different primes. One of the great insights in the study of spectra is that they decompose in an even richer way according to so-called “chromatic primes”. In the talk, we shall discuss some of the places where spectra appear in mathematics and how these extra primes arise, studied, and utilized. We also discuss “higher algebra” – that is, algebra with spectra taking the role of abelian groups- and see how it sheds light back on the different mathematical fields in which spectra appear.

# Ching-Yao Lai (Princeton University)

February 16, 2023 at MIT

Title: Physics-informed neural networks for fluid and ice dynamics

Abstract: Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) have recently emerged as a new class of numerical solver for partial differential equations which leverage deep neural networks constrained by equations. I’ll discuss two applications of PINNs in fluid dynamics developed in my group. The first concerns the search for self-similar blow-up solutions of the Euler equations. The second application uses PINNs as an inverse method in geophysics. Whether an inviscid incompressible fluid, described by the 3-dimensional Euler equations, can develop singularities in finite time is an open question in mathematical fluid dynamics. We employ PINNs to find a numerical self-similar blow-up solution for the incompressible 3-dimensional Euler equations with a cylindrical boundary. In the second part of the talk, I will discuss how PINNs trained with real world data from Antarctica can help discover flow laws that govern ice-shelf dynamics. These ice shelves play a role in slowing the flow of glaciers into the ocean, which impacts global sea level rise. However, the effective viscosity of the ice, a crucial material property, cannot be directly measured. By using PINNs to solve the governing equations for the ice shelves and invert for their effective viscosity, we were able to calculate flow laws that differ from those commonly assumed in climate simulations. This suggests the need to reassess the impact of these flow laws on sea level rise projections.

The colloquium meets (by default) on Thursdays at 4:30 PM Eastern (contact institutional organizers for details). The organizers include Bong Lian at Brandeis; Fabian Gundlach, Myrto Mavraki, and Assaf Shani at Harvard; Yufei Zhao at MIT; and Matan Harel, Matthew Hogancamp, and Jonathan Weitsman at Northeastern. This website is maintained by Matan Harel. The image of Boston is the property of Wikimedia user King of Hearts and is reproduced here under Creative Commons license CC BY-SA 4.0. Images of speakers are their own property and are reproduced here with permission.